ACADEMIC ARTICLES

Pastoral Consultant

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The Galatians letter is judged against the background of the ancient letter genre as well as the Greco-Roman rhetoric.

The Galatians letter is a typical example of the “apologetic letter genre” that originated in the Socratic tradition and of which Plato was one of the most famous exponents. It is very difficult to trace the history of this particular genre (literary form) as most of the literature on this has not been preserved.

Article available in Afrikaans 

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The impact of preocupation with sexual activity, associated with the use of the internet, on the family – a pastoral perspective

Along with the tremendous growth in the number of internet users in recent years, there has been a similar growth with regard to pornographic websites as well as internet sex. According to researchers and counselors more and more families and individuals get stuck in this trap, with destructive results for marriages and children. This article focuses on the magnitude of this problem, it’s progressive character as well as a number of possible causes. Typical behavior of those addicted to this problem is evaluated as well as the impact of this addiction on sexual intimacy within marriage. Pastoral guidelines that include a treatment program are discussed and practical hints are suggested.

Article available in Afrikaans

 

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Pastoral counseling of the sexually addicted.

In this article special attention is given to a relatively new field of research with regard to sexual addiction. Sexuality is very much part of our core being. However, when this pattern becomes one of compulsion, it has the ability to totally unravel the person involved. The effects of this process within a marriage can be devastating. Attention is given to aspects like the mood altering affect of sexual addiction, denial, rationalization and fantasy. Focus is also placed on the cycle of addiction, the different rituals as well as the so-called “tolerance factor”. Important guidelines with regard to general counseling of addicts are discussed and more specific details are given in terms of the pastoral counseling process. Unresolved past hurt and pain would seem to be of special importance and special attention is given to this aspect during the counseling process. In this way, a functional pastoral foundation can be laid, thus enabling and equipping the addict to respond in a positive way with regards to further therapeutic inputs from other disciplines.

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" Compassion fatigue " - coping with secondary traumatic stress.

There is a cost to caring. Professionals who listen to clients’ stories of fear, pain and suffering may feel similar fear, pain and suffering because they care. Simply the knowledge that a loved one has been exposed to a traumatic event can be traumatising – in this respect trauma can sometimes be contagious. The consequence of this process is that trauma therapy profoundly changes the therapist. These changes are both inspiring and disturbing, involving gains and losses. Traumatology literature usually excludes those who have been traumatised indirectly; thus this aspect is specifically explored in this article. Terminology like compassion fatigue, secondary traumatic stress, burnout, countertransference, and vicarious traumatisation, are explored. The importance of compassion satisfaction, a team ap­proach and supervision is also highlighted. A list of typical character­istics of compassion fatigue is provided, as well as practical guidelines in dealing with and preventing this problem. Certain pastoral-theo­logical perspectives concerning this theme are also discussed.

 Article available in Afrikaans

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Pastoral implications of the body / mind connection.

Against the background of the body / mind connection the focus is first on the biblical view of man as an unfragmented unity. Secondly the emphasis is on the historical roots of the so-called biopsychosocial model that is replacing the traditional biophysical method. Furthermore, the focus is also on the possibility of physical problems as the result of unresolved emotions; the immune system as an important link within the body / mind connection; critical life changes; the role of genetics as well as important decisions of the will; social support and loneliness; and, the therapeutic value of writing or verbalization. In conclusion, the emphasis is on the pastoral implications of all the above mentioned factors and a plea is made for the inclusion of the pastoral / spiritual dimension in the biospychosocial model.

 Article available in Afrikaans

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Meta-theoretical perspectives on physical problems as a possible consequence of unprocessed trauma.

In this article the focus is on the close relationship between unresolved trauma and some physical problems. For most people, the initial response to trauma is that of denial. Emotional pain that is suppressed on a continuing basis can result in physical problems. With regard to this aspect, attention is also paid to the contribution of research in the field of psychoneuroimmunology. In this regard, special emphasis is placed on the intimate relationship between body and emotions, as well as the role of the immune system. The role of unresolved trauma with regard to some specific diseases is also discussed. In conclusion, a number of specific guidelines regarding a holistic approach in the pastoral counseling of traumatized persons are presented. 

 Article available in Afrikaans

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The 'sins' of the fathers - how do they affect the children? Exploratory perspectives along with some Pastoral side notes.

Exodus 20: 5 refers to the “… punishing of children for the iniquity of parents, to the third and fourth generations…” Should a statement such as this be interpreted against the background of the discipline of intergenerational trauma, it could also in a broader sense point to a number of aspects related to the unresolved trauma of previous generations being transmitted to successive generations. The focus in this article is consistently highlighted on the process of transmitting trauma within successive generations and typical behavior and symptoms in this regard are highlighted. Consequently, valuable insights from research on family systems theory (Murray Bowen), the field of traumatology (Charles Figley), as well as the use of a genogram are discussed. In conclusion, some pastoral guidelines are provided for guiding counselees regarding this very relevant issue.

 Article available in Afrikaans

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The impact of intergenerational trauma . Exploratory perspectives along with some Pastoral side notes.

This article focuses on the process of transmitting trauma within successive generations. Typical behavior and symptoms in this regard are highlighted. A summary of typical characteristics of a dysfunctional family is presented. This is followed by a literature study with regard to the history of research on the theme of intergenerational trauma. Some parallels with a typical dysfunctional home are drawn. The focus then shifts to a pastoral model for the counseling of family members who suffer from the results of intergenerational trauma. This model is based mainly on four therapeutic models presented in the literature regarding the counseling of victims of intergenerational trauma and dysfunctional families.

 Article available in Afrikaans

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Religion: remedy for addiction or healing?

In this article special attention is given to a relatively new field of research with regard to sexual addiction. Sexuality is very much part of our core being. However, when this pattern becomes one of compulsion, it has the ability to totally unravel the person involved. The effects of this process within a marriage can be devastating. Attention is given to aspects like the mood altering affect of sexual addiction, denial, rationalization and fantasy. Focus is also placed on the cycle of addiction, the different rituals as well as the so-called “tolerance factor”. Important guidelines with regard to general counseling of addicts are discussed and more specific details are given in terms of the pastoral counseling process. Unresolved past hurt and pain would seem to be of special importance and special attention is given to this aspect during the counseling process. In this way, a functional pastoral foundation can be laid, thus enabling and equipping the addict to respond in a positive way with regards to further therapeutic inputs from other disciplines.

 Article available in Afrikaans

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Pastoral guidance of the self-mutilator.

In this article, the increasing prevalence of self-mutilation among young people seems to serve as an outlet valve for built-up pressure in many cases and not so much as a suicide attempt. Very often it is a result of abuse and / or sexual abuse and the person then uses this method to get rid of inner pain. Feelings of loneliness, a need for control, a need to feel just something, and a need to punish oneself can also play a role. The family climate is generally of particular importance. This problem presents a special challenge for pastoral counselors and the church by focusing much more on the problem of pain as well as its management. This is related to the fact that denial in the past has played a major role in certain church circles and also within certain families. As part of a pastoral-therapeutic strategy in guiding the self-mutilator, aspects such as identifying the role of lies, utilizing solutions from the past, forgiveness, Holy Communion, prayer and meditation can therefore be key components of the healing process. shape. Pastoral counselors will need to be fully aware of the phenomenon of self-mutilation in order to be able to truly help. Prayer and meditation therefore form crucial components of the healing process. Pastoral counselors will need to be fully aware of the phenomenon of self-mutilation in order to be able to truly help. Prayer and meditation consequently form crucial components of the healing process. Pastoral counselors will need to be fully aware of the phenomenon of self-mutilation in order to be able to truly help

 Article available in Afrikaans

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Wounded and confused adolescents - some pastoral markers

This essay focusses on the pastoral guidance of adolescents who struggle with emotional wounds which, in many instances, were inflicted during and have continued to exist since early childhood. The woundedness of young people is related to the nature of adolescence. The process of growing up is further complicated by the trauma, crises and emotional wounding of young people during this phase. One of the consequences is that they, in turn, tend to wound those around them. Breaking this cycle of negativity poses a major challenge, as it is often accompanied by resistance in these young people because of their having learned harmful survival and coping mechanisms.

Against this background the following question was considered: To what extent can pastoral counselling eventually achieve healing in wounded adolescents?

Regarding methodology, the theoretical framework of the study is based on an integrated eclectic approach that draws on the fields of pastoral care, positive psychology, inner healing, the so-called strengths perspective and the inner child perspective, as well as insights from the growth model and recovery movement.

It has been shown that the early formative years of a person’s life are crucial. If a child’s most basic needs are not met, this lack may result in emotional wounding with lifelong effects. For example, people need unconditional acceptance and love. They also need the assurance that they will not be hurt, harmed or rejected, for them to feel protected against physical, emotional and material hurt. Furthermore, they want recognition and positive affirmation of their gifts and abilities, along with the constant assurance that others will support and guide them. The decisive influence of the formative years is also apparent from unresolved pain carried forward into the adolescent years and from there into young adulthood and adulthood itself.

In adolescents emotional wounding usually leads to a number of characteristic behavioural patterns, which may be categorised into two major groups: reactions that either “act in” (inwardly) or “act out” (outwardly). Adolescents who act in would, for instance, keep their pain to themselves. They do not confide in, or discuss their problems with, anybody, hoping instead that these problems will disappear of their own accord. Others react by acting out their feelings and pain in their behaviour, words or attitudes. This often manifests in impulsive acts that are attempts to release accumulated internal tension. For example, bullying, aggression, rebelliousness and vandalism are sometimes the result of adolescents acting out their inner pain.

Regarding general guidelines for counsellors, the emphasis in this article is firstly on creating a secure therapeutic climate in which wounded adolescents are allowed to express their anger and negative emotions verbally. Confidentiality is a cardinal issue. Furthermore it is important to lay out the relevant facts; some wounded adolescents may find it meaningful to express their feelings in writing. Certain key questions may also lead to a breakthrough, such as establishing where adolescents learned their acting-out behaviour, whether they have been wounded by such behaviour, and how such behaviour has impacted on them, their families and their friends. It is also important to ascertain the consequences of acting out for the adolescents themselves, and whether their friends were or are involved in this behaviour in any way.

Progress in the process of healing is dependent on adolescents’ willing and active participation. This implies a return to God. Emotionally traumatised young people often experience God as being absent, which may lead them to distancing themselves from God. In a religious context counsellors may point out to such youths that God greatly desires to heal the wounds of those who turn to him.

Emotionally wounded adolescents probably have dysfunctional images and impressions of themselves because of having heard stories about, and having been exposed to certain events in, their childhood. All these aspects need to be traced and eventually eliminated. Guiding principles in this regard may include identifying negative life patterns, identifying negative rules that have helped them to survive in times of crisis, making time to listen to their stories, looking out for any symptoms of posttraumatic stress, revisiting the original trauma during conversations under the guidance of the counsellor, focusing on defusing harmful emotions, replacing, with the true facts, all the inaccuracies that have been established over the years due to lack of guidance and sometimes overwhelming trauma, and making new choices and decisions regarding such misconceptions.

Acknowledgement is a further step in adolescents’ active participation in the healing process. The counsellor needs to encourage them to acknowledge the harmful nature of the ways in which they have tried to weather the storms of life in the past. The wounded inner child often tends to be angry, hurt and vengeful. Within a religious context adolescents should receive the support that will enable them to remove their masks and to risk seeing themselves as special, unique creatures of God. Adolescents may also be encouraged and assisted to visualise their wounded inner child, which will serve as a symbolic act of self-acceptance and self-love. In some cases it may also be necessary to guide young people through a process of bereavement regarding unresolved pain and loss in their past.

By this stage in the therapeutic process, adolescents usually realise that unhealthy behaviour serves no further purpose and should, therefore, be replaced by healthy patterns of behaviour. This insight generally causes them to search for spiritual maturity, which is determined by religious values and content. Spiritually mature young people have come to accept their strengths and weaknesses. Their own identity, which may have been repressed for years due to emotional pain and rejection, usually takes shape during this stage in the process. Professional guidance and facilitation will become necessary at this point to establish and identify new boundaries.

The final step in weathering the storm requires that wounded adolescents open themselves up to the joys of life once more and that they embrace with gratitude the healing that is being realised in their lives. The abovementioned guidelines should put emotionally wounded adolescents on the path towards increasing discovery and eventual realisation of their God-given personality, with all the gifts and talents it includes.

Keywords: young people; adolescents; emotional woundedness; pastoral counselling; eclectic approach; acting in / acting-in behaviour; acting out / acting-out behaviour.

Full article availalble in Afrikaans

 

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Pastoral guidance of the emotionally wounded teen - Coetzer & de Klerk

Many teenagers struggle with the consequences of emotional injuries. Simultaneously they are moving through the difficult phase of adolescence which may complicate their situation. In this article the first focus is the typical factors which compound the difficulties in this phase. Secondly we focus on a variety of possible causes of emotional injury. The results and consequences of such injuries form the third issue investigated. In the last instance attention is given to some pastoral-theological points of departure concerning counselling of emotionally injured young people. To
these young people their frame of reference is influenced by amongst other things their families, school, church and friends. To experience real meaning in life the teenager’s relationship with God has to be healed, for this relationship determines all other inter-personal relationships. The spiritual deepening accompanying this process often also significantly contributes to the eventual handling of unprocessed hurt from the past.

 

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A pastoral exploration of the effects of 'father wounds', 'father hunger' and 'father distress' - Coetzer & Louw.

In this article firstly a couple of historical markers will be indicated with reference to the concepts of ‘father wounds’, ‘father hunger’ and ‘father
need’. The void referring to research on the terrain of this theme will then be raised, as well as the onslaught on the role of the father in general. Five contributing factors to ‘father wounds’, ‘father hunger’ and ‘father need’ will be consecutively discussed, namely: family structures that are busy changing; changing career structures; parents who are forced to fulfil different roles and levels of involvement; the shift between traditional and contemporary gender roles; adult pleasure, the digital era, and the role of peer groups. The second part of the article focuses on a number of practical guidelines to restore the father relationship again.

 

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The self-cutting phenomenon among young people: perspectives from Practical Theology.

Statistics around the phenomenon of self-injurious behaviour show a rise in numbers. Self-injury has been described as the anorexia and bulimia of the new millennium. The church must be equipped to guide and counsel young people affected by this problem. It is not a ‘teenage problem’ that people simply ‘outgrow’. We can therefore no longer pretend that this is a fringe issue that occurs in only the most extreme cases. This article, in the first instance, focuses on reasons for the increase in cases as well as on a number of misconceptions regarding this theme. Secondly, the focus shifts to the important role of emotions, the dynamics of the process, as well as a treatment programme. In conclusion, a number of pastoral perspectives are highlighted and guidelines provided to prevent possible slips and setbacks.

 

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Important meta-theoretical guidelines regarding the emotionally injured person - Coetzer & Snell.

This article examines the relationship between emotional woundedness and faith estrangement. Trust issues towards God often emerge in the heart of the believer when left vulnerable and in shock due to unforeseen trauma. The dilemma is that this condition leaves the wounded person more vulnerable. With a view to bringing healing and deeper faith, different trauma intervention models are evaluated and the role of forgiveness, retribution and faith are examined. In conclusion, some guidelines regarding a holistic approach in the pastoral counselling of the traumatised faith-estranged person are presented.

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A proposed matrix for the pastoral counseling of the wounded believer - Coetzer & Snell.

This article focuses on the role of the pastoral counselling of the emotionally wounded and faithestranged person through the mediation of the salvation in Christ. The role of the Triune God and the central position of Scripture in mediating the salvation in Christ are also examined and the Scriptural view of man is constructed. The role of emotional trauma in the estrangement from God as well as the importance of justice and retribution are examined as it relates to the spiritual and emotional healing of the wounded faith-estranged. The article also discusses the prominence of the salvation in Christ in the spiritual healing process. In conclusion, a pastoral-therapeutic matrix of intervention is proposed to help in addressing the present life crisis and current faith-estrangement within the context of the trauma history, with a view to find healing from the woundedness and the faith-estrangement through salvation in Christ. Practical guidelines are offered to guide this supporting process.

 

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Pastoral guidance of children in mourning

Literature often refers to children as the so called forgotten grievers. In the past, during deaths in a family, pastoral counselling was sometimes more focused on the adults than on children. However, losses that are not processed during childhood will have an impact on the rest of such a person’s life. In this article, the importance of children as full members of the community of faith (also regarding their emotions) is emphasised. Aspects such as the question on meaning, the protective and healing effect of spirituality and faith, and the importance of a passage like Luke 18:15–17 with respect to smaller children are discussed. The importance of the integration of spirituality and creative expressive techniques and strategies are also explored. Examples of the latter techniques are discussed, while a number of practical guidelines on religious issues for the guidance of the child who has experienced a loss also receive attention.

Article available in Afrikaans 

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Profits for the Pastorate - a multi-disciplinary approach to the problem of toxic thought and behavior patterns - Coetzer & Kruger

According to research, dysfunctional behavioral and thought patterns have increased by approximately 300% in the last 50 years. This study focused on the origin, consequences and therapeutic intervention associated with these toxic patterns and has shown that the traditional view of cognitive restructuring sometimes falls short. Further attention was drawn to the contribution made by new research in the sphere of psycho-neurology which emphasizes the importance of healthy brain functioning for behavior, thinking, cognitive ability as well as a perception of the Divine and the finding that minor brain injuries can sometimes be manifested in the form of broken relationships and compulsive behavioral patterns. From this transpired the importance of ascertaining whether the brain functions optimally before a particular person is labeled with some or other abnormality or disorder.

Subsequently the focus was on the specific contribution by the Christian psychiatrist, Daniel Amen. With the help of brain scan technologies he highlighted particular perspectives which can throw light on the pastoral counselling process of the emotionally wounded person, especially where it concerns trauma that has not been dealt with as a possible consequence of earlier injuries to the head. In this context Amen identifies the possible role of five brain systems concerning human behaviour, namely the prefrontal cortex, the deep limbic system, the basal ganglia, the cingulum and the temporal lobes. Medication, diet, exercise as well as cognitive restructuring eventually form part of a holistic therapeutic approach. It was proved that if there is healthy brain functioning, there will also be positive and balanced interpersonal functioning in relationships. If not, dysfunctionality will manifest in relationships as well as the person’s personal life. In addition to Amen’s approach the focus was finally also on the therapeutic model of the Christian psychiatrist, Karel Benzio. Improved perspectives for pastoral care emerged from this joint approach.

Article available in Afrikaans

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A proposed matrix for the pastoral counseling of the wounded believer - Coetzer & Snell.

This article focuses on the role of the pastoral counselling of the emotionally wounded and faithestranged person through the mediation of the salvation in Christ. The role of the Triune God and the central position of Scripture in mediating the salvation in Christ are also examined and the Scriptural view of man is constructed. The role of emotional trauma in the estrangement from God as well as the importance of justice and retribution are examined as it relates to the spiritual and emotional healing of the wounded faith-estranged. The article also discusses the prominence of the salvation in Christ in the spiritual healing process. In conclusion, a pastoral-therapeutic matrix of intervention is proposed to help in addressing the present life crisis and current faith-estrangement within the context of the trauma history, with a view to find healing from the woundedness and the faith-estrangement through salvation in Christ. Practical guidelines are offered to guide this supporting process.

 

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The impact of bullying on children and young persons

This article focuses on the destructive effect of bullying on the emotional, mental and physical dimensions of the victim. In many cases it has contributed to the devastation of the ideals and dreams of children and their parents. The statistics, scope and actuality of this issue are discussed as well as important distinct definitions, such as ‘cyberbully’, ‘cyber stalking’ and ‘Internet troll’. The significant shift over the last few years from physical bullying to cyberbullying is highlighted, as well as the fact that the age of children involved in cyberbullying is gradually becoming younger. Reasons why certain children are vulnerable, as well as typical characteristics, symptoms and consequences of bullying are explained. In this regard the importance of a structured anti-bullying program at schools is emphasized with particular reference to Dan Olweus’s well-known model. Finally, the focus is on a number of important pastoral perspectives that should be part of a holistic strategy in equipping children and young people. Aspects applicable here are the child’s identity in Christ; the concept of Biblical boundaries; A life of service to fellow human beings; communication and relationship skills; Biblical principles of planning and strategy; the Golden Rule of Mat 7:12 as well as the nurturing of empathetic abilities.

Article available in Afrikaans

 

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The digital impact on children and young people

This article focuses on the phenomenal development of the Internet over the past number of years. This development has indeed obviously influenced the younger generation more directly and therefore the focus will consequently be on the vulnerability of the young people regarding certain digital pitfalls. Typical characteristics of the so-called “Millenials” are discussed as well as some negative consequences of excessive exposure to digital screens. Against this background, some practical and pastoral perspectives are discussed. A very important aspect seems to be that of fostering the necessary relationship skills. The way in which the brain functions, as well as the basic needs of children and young people, will also be addressed. Within this context, there seems to be an enormous huge challenge for the church, teachers, and parents. They need to keep abreast of developments, be involved and provide relevant and sensible guidance.

 Article available in Afrikaans

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A pastoral approach towards trauma, with special reference to the dynamics of prayer as a vital component of the healing process

Trauma has the power to shake people to their very core, impacting their beliefs about themselves, the world, and often God. Even those of great faith may question His existence and love for them. In an article by Nigel Mumford (2012:14) he refers to some horrific incidents regarding the impact of trauma. One man whom he knew was in WWII and was fine until the newspaper headlines of September 11th “Three Thousand Killed.” This set him into full post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), as he had reckoned he had killed about three thousand people as he called in artillery fire. He was fine for 45 years until triggered by that horrific news. Mumford also knew a Sargent who was snoozing while on leave. His five-year-old daughter went “Boo” to dad. He was startled and swung out in self-defence and killed his child with his fist! They never saw him again – he was shipped off to a mental institution.

 Paper presented at International Conference in Potchefstroom in September 2013

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Profits for the pastorate - a multi-disciplinary approach to the problem of toxic thought and behavior patterns - Coetzer & Kruger

According to research dysfunctional behavioural and thought patterns have increased by approximately 300% in the last 50 years. This study focused on the origin, consequences and therapeutic intervention connected with these toxic patterns and has shown that the traditional view of cognitive restructuring sometimes falls short. Further attention was drawn to the contribution made by new research in the sphere of psycho-neurology which emphasises the importance of healthy brain functioning for behaviour, thinking, cognitive ability as well as a perception of the Divine and the Finding that minor brain injuries can sometimes be manifested in the form of broken relationships and compulsive behavioural patterns. From this transpired the importance of ascertaining whether the brain functions optimally before a particular person is labelled with some or other abnormality or disorder.

 

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A pastoral approach towards the identification and dealing with the lie with the emotionally wounded person - Coetzer & Kruger

The problem statement being presented in this article is man’s dilemma after the fall from grace. This dilemma implies a toxic mindset that has a need for renewal. An investigation for truth as concept will thus be the point of departure. According to Scripture truth is at its deepest about the person of Jesus Christ. Further the focus falls on the lie as internalised truth. The lie with reference to God’s absence during trauma and thus also His ‘adversity’ in this person, figures strongly here. Further damage to the person’s view of the world also takes place while trauma wounds the person’s deepest needs by means of a lie. There will also be focused on typical lies imbedded in the emotionally wounded victim around aspects like fear, rejection, shame, victim status and guilt feelings. Then the focus will also be on the manifestation of the lie in thought patterns with the accent on defence mechanisms.  Here will especially be focused on aspects like surpression of memories, disorientation, rationalisaiton, day dreaming, etc.   Lastly a number of guidelines are suggested around the healing of toxic thought patterns. Important aspects here, for example, are the following: identification of core problems; differentiation between the voice of God and that of Satan; insight with reference to self-concept;  renewed identity in Christ;  the establishment of boundaries; correct management of anger;  grieving about losses; correct management of forgiveness; correct management of fear and especially the important role of prayer.

 

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