4. Burnout counsellors (compassion fatigue and secondary trauma) (Index)

BURNOUT AMONG COUNSELLORS

[SECONDARY TRAUMATISATION AND COMPASSION FATIGUE]

INDEX

 

 

 

CHAPTER 1:  HOW YOU EXPERIENCE BURNOUT                               

Christina Maslach & Michael Leiter

·         An erosion of engagement                                                                                                      

  • Six sources of burnout                                                                                                     

·         An erosion of emotions                                                                                                          

  • The emotional fallout of burnout                                                                                         
  • The social context of emotions                                                                                         

·         A failure to fit in                                                                                                                     

  • Blaming the person                                                                                                          
  • Understanding the situation                                                                                              
  • A cascade effect                                                                                                             

 

CHAPTER 2:  WHAT CAUSES BURNOUT?                                                                                  

Christina Maslach & Michael Leiter

·         Work overload                                                                                                                       

  • Work is more intense                                                                                                       
  • Work demands more time                                                                                                          
  • Work is more complex                                                                                                     
  • Work creates the exhaustion of overload                                                                            

·         Lack of control                                                                                                                      

  • How much control?                                                                                                          
  • The burden of micromanagement                                                                                      

·         Insufficient reward                                                                                                                  

o        Getting less for more                                                                                                         

§         Money                                                                                                                 

§         Fewer opportunities for ca­reer advancement                                                            

§         Job security                                                                                                         

o        Losing the joy of work                                                                                                       

·         Breakdown of community                                                                                                       

o      Fragmenting personal relationships                                                                                   

  • Undermining teamwork                                                                                                     
  • Working separately, not together                                                                                      

·         Absence of fairness                                                                                                               

·         Conflicting values                                                                                                                   

  • What is really important?                                                                                                 
  • Insincerity in organizational values                                                                                    

·         Where do we go from here?                                                                                                    

 

CHAPTER 3:  TAKING ON THE JOB-PERSON MISMATCH INDIVIDUALLY                                   

Christina Maslach & Michael Leiter

·         It starts with a person                                                                                                            

·         It becomes a group project                                                                                                     

·         It connects to the organization                                                                                                

·         The outcome is a process                                                                                                      

·         Moving toward a better future                                                                                                  

 

CHAPTER 4:  SECONDARY TRAUMA: INTRODUCTORY REMARKS                                             

Pearlman, Saakvitne & Figley

·         There is a cost to caring

·         Review of research

·         Terminology

  • Compassion fatigue
  • Secondary traumatic stress
  • Vicarious traumatisation
  • Burnout
  • Transference
  • Counter transference
  • Projective identification
  • Identification

·         Trauma is contagious

·         Implications of the trauma worker’s exposure

·         Personal outrage and disillusionment

·         Basic needs influenced by compassion fatigue

·         Shortcomings in the training of counselors and therapists

·         Scriptural references

 

CHAPTER 5: THE CAUSES OF SECONDARY TRAUMATISATION

Pearlman, Saakvitne & Figley

·         Three general contexts that may affect the therapist’s secondary traumatization                         

o        Organisational context                                                                                                     

o        Professional context                                                                                                        

o        Social context                                                                                                                 

·         Aspects of the therapist                                                                                                         

o        The self                                                                                                                          

o        Personal history                                                                                                              

o        Current personal circumstances                                                                                        

o        Training and supervision                                                                                                   

·         Aspects connected to specific situations                                                                                 

·         Secondary traumatization affects a wide variety of people in the helping fields                             

o        Journalism                                                                                                                      

  • Police                                                                                                                             
  • Social workers                                                                                                                
  • Veterinarians                                                                                                                   
  • Nurses                                                                                                                           
  • Working with the elderly                                                                                                   

o        Jurors                                                                                                                             

  • Educators                                                                                                                       
  • Museum staff                                                                                                                  
  • Caregivers to the dying                                                                                                     

 

CHAPTER 6:  THE EFFECTS OF SECONDARY TRAUMATISATION ON COUNSELLORS

Pearlman, Saakvitne & Figley

·         Effects on crisis workers/counsellors as a result of providing help

·         Terminology

  • Immediate post-exposure effects
  • Short-term post-exposure effects
  • Long-term post-exposure effects
  • Relationship problems and marital discord in crisis workers
  • Substance use/abuse

·         Categories of secondary traumatic stress reaction

  • Indicators of psychological distress or dysfunction
  • Cognitive shifts
  • Relational disturbances

 ·         Counter transference responses to incest                                                                                

o        Areas of counter transference vulnerability                                                                         

o        The silencing response                                                                                                    

·         To sum up: which are the red lights signalling danger?                                                              

·         The different phases of secondary traumatic stress                                                                   

 

CHAPTER 7:  TREATMENT OF SECONDARY TRAUMA                                                                

Pearlman, Saakvitne & Figley

A.   Components of prevention of  secondary traumatic stress                                                         

a.   Physical                                                                                                                         

·         Body work                                                                                                                

·         Nutrition                                                                                                                    

·         Adequate sleep                                                                                                         

b.   Psychological                                                                                                                  

·         Life balance                                                                                                              

·         Identity                                                                                                                     

·         Relaxation                                                                                                                

·         Contact with nature                                                                                                    

·         Creative expression                                                                                                   

·         Skill development                                                                                                      

o        Assertiveness training                                                                                          

o        Stress reduction                                                                                                  

o        Interpersonal communication                                                                                

o        Cognitive restructuring                                                                                          

o        Community organizing                                                                                         

o        Time management                                                                                               

·         Seek spiritual renewal                                                                                                

·         Self-awareness                                                                                                          

·         World view                                                                                                                

·         Stepping back from one’s work and putting it in perspective                                           

·         Connection                                                                                                               

·         Humour                                                                                                                    

·         Personal therapy                                                                                                       

c.   Social/interpersonal                                                                                                         

·         Social supports                                                                                                         

·         Rest and play                                                                                                            

·         Getting help                                                                                                              

·         Social activism                                                                                                          

d.   Professional                                                                                                                    

·         Recognize and accept STS                                                                                        

·         Balance                                                                                                                    

·         Boundaries/limit setting                                                                                              

·         Getting support/help                                                                                                  

·         Job commitment                                                                                                        

·         Replenishment                                                                                                          

B.      The importance of a team approach                                                                                         

  • Preventive team practices                                                                                                 
  • Ritual and cult abuse                                                                                                       
  • Two cases                                                                                                                      

C.   What can we do to help prevent and deal with compassion fatigue and secondary

       traumatisation?                                                                                                                    

·         Compassion-satisfaction                                                                                                  

·         Some practical guidelines                                                                                                

o        For ourselves                                                                                                            

o        For others                                                                                                                 

o        For our workplace                                                                                                      

 

CHAPTER 8:  CONCLUSION                                                                                                       

·         The rewards of doing trauma therapy                                                                                       

·         Transformation of the therapist as therapist                                                                              

·         Transformation of the therapist as person                                                                                 

·         Our role as witnesses                                                                                                            

·         Glimmers of wisdom                                                                                                              

·         A spiritual journey                                                                                                                  

·         Always remember                                                                                                                  

 

Bibliography                                                                                                                             

Appendix  1:  Burnout checklist                                                                                                  

Appendix  2:  Symptoms of burnout                                                                                             

Appendix  3:  The Burns depression checklist                                                                              

Appendix  4:  The Burns anxiety inventory                                                                                    

Appendix  5:   Different phases to be worked through after each critical incident                              

Appendix  6:  Compassion satisfaction and fatigue test                                                                 

Appendix  7:   The impact of secondary traumatic stress